Pilot Validation Study for the Spanish-language CDI-2 among Adolescents from Puerto Rico

Eduardo Cumba-Avilés, Yaritza M. López-Robledo, Wildaliz Caro-González, Ilia Rosario-Nieves


The Children’s Depression Inventory-2 (CDI-2) was validated and standardized for US children. Although some data is available on its Spanish-language 12-item short form, the psychometric properties of the Spanish full-length form (28-item) are unknown. We examined the internal consistency (alpha coefficient) and concurrent validity of the Spanish-language CDI-2 among 51 Puerto Rican youth (aged 12-18 years), recruited from a public school, a private school, and a local church. Scores on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale-2 (RADS-2) were used as concurrent validity criteria. We found alpha coefficients of .84, .74 and .76 for the Total, Emotional Problems, and Functional Problems scores, respectively. Corrected item-total correlations from .13 (Arguments with friends) to .69 (Feeling lonely) were observed. Reliability coefficients for subscales ranged from .58 (Interpersonal Problems) to .65 (Ineffectiveness and Negative Self-Esteem). CDI-2 and RADS-2 scores correlated .87. Correlations between RADS-2 scores and CDI-2 subscales ranged from .66 to .70 (p ≤ .001). Similar validity coefficients were found for the short form (α = .68). Our initial report on the Spanish full-length CDI-2 suggest that its psychometric properties with Puerto Rican adolescents may be similar to those of the original Spanish CDI and those reported for Hispanics using the English-language CDI-2.

Texto completo:



Atlas, J. A. (2014). Test review of the Children’s Depression Inventory 2nd Edition. In J. F. Carlson, K. F. Geisinger & J. L. Jonson (Eds.), The nineteenth mental measurements yearbook: Retrieved from http://marketplace.unl.edu/buros/

Babakhanyan, I. (2013). Development and validation of a process focused measure of childhood depression. (Doctoral Dissertation), Loma Linda University. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/ docview/1426563030

Bae, Y. (2012). Test Review: Children's Depression Inventory 2 (CDI 2). Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 30(3), 304-308. doi: 10.1177/0734282911426407

Bernal, G., Rosselló, J., & Martínez, A. (1997). El Inventario de Depresión para Niños y Niñas: Propiedades psicométricas en dos muestras puertorriqueñas. [The Children's Depression Inventory: Psychometric properties in two Puerto Rican samples.]. Psicología Contemporánea, 4(1), 12-23.

Camuffo, M., Cerutti, R., & Spensieri, V. (2018). La versione italiana del CDI-2 [The Italian version of the CDI-2]. In M. Camuffo & R. Cerutti (Eds.), CDI 2 - Children's Depression Inventory, Second Edition Technical Manual (Adattamiento italiano/Italian adaptation) (pp. 80-101). Florence, Italy: Hogrefe Editore.

Cumba-Avilés, E. (2019). Systematic Review on the Use of the Children’s Depression Inventory-2 among Hispanics. Manuscript submmited for publication.

Cumba-Avilés, E., & Feliciano-López, V. (2013). Estudio piloto de validación del Inventario para la Evaluación del Espectro de la Sintomatología Depresiva (INEESD) [Pilot-validation study of the Depressive Symptoms Spectrum Assessment Inventory]. Ciencias de la Conducta, 28(1), 1-33.

Davanzo, P., Kerwin, L., Nikore, V., Esparza, C., Forness, S., & Murrelle, L. (2004). Spanish translation and reliability testing of the Child Depression Inventory. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 35(1), 75-92.

Del Barrio, V., Roa Capilla, M. L., Olmedo, M., & Colodrón, F. (2002). Primera adaptación del CDI-S a población española [First adaptation of the CDI-S for Spanish population]. Acción Psicológica, 1(3), 10. doi: 10.5944/ap.1.3.558

DeVellis, R. F. (2016). Scale develoment: Theory and applications (4th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Feliciano-López, V., & Cumba-Avilés, E. (2014). Propiedades psicométricas del Inventario para la Evaluación del Espectro de la Sintomatología Depresiva en Adolescentes [Psychometric properties of the Depressive Symptoms Spectrum Assessment Inventory in Youth]. Revista Puertorriqueña de Psicología, 25(2), 260-278.

Figueras-Masip, A., Amador-Campos, J. A., & Peró-Cebollero, M. (2008). Características psicométricas de la Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale en población comunitaria y clínica. [Psychometric properties of the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale in community and clinic populations.]. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 8(1), 247-266.

Frías, D., del Barrio, V., & Mestre, V. (1991). Children's Depression Inventory (CDI): Sus características psicométricas en población extranjera y española. [The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI): Its psychometric properties in foreign and Spanish populations.]. Evaluación Psicológica, 7(3), 377-391.

Gulbas, L. E., Zayas, L. H., Yoon, H., Szlyk, H., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., & Natera, G. (2016). Deportation experiences and depression among U.S. citizen-children with undocumented Mexican parents. Child: Care, Health and Development, 42(2), 220-230.

Kim, H.-J., Lee, E.-H., Hwang, S.-T., Hong, S.-H., & Kim, J.-H. (2018). Psychometric properties of the Children’s Depression Inventory-2 among a community-based sample of Korean children and adolescents. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 37(2), 178-187.

Kovacs, M. (2010). Children’s Depression Inventory 2nd Edition (CDI2). North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems, Inc.

Kovacs, M. (2015). Children's Depression Inventory (CDI and CDI 2). In R. L. Cautin & S. O. Lilienfeld (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology (pp. 495-499): John Wiley & Sons.

Kovacs, M., & MHS Staff. (2011). Children’s Depression Inventory 2nd Edition (CDI 2) Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.

Lam, K. C. H., & Kovacs, M. (2011, August). Psychometric properties of the Children's Depression Inventory, 2nd Edition: Self-Report. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association 119th Annual Convention, Washington, D.C.

López, N. (1986). Assessing depressive symptoms using the Child Depression Scale and the Children's Depression Inventory: A cross cultural comparison of children in Puerto Rico and the United States. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46(10-A), 2998. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?irect=true&db=psyh&AN=1987-50304-001&site=ehost-live

Marchante-Hoffman, A. N. (2018). Giving voice to underserved foreign-born Latino youth: Trauma, stress, and health in the primary care setting. Open Access Dissertations, 2112. https://scholarlyrepository.miami.edu/oa_dissertations/2112

Masip, A. F., Amador-Campos, J. A., Gómez-Benito, J., & del Barrio Gándara, V. (2010). Psychometric properties of the Children's Depression Inventory in community and clinical sample. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13(2), 990-999.

Soto-Molina, C., Rodríguez-Gomez, J., & Vélez-Pastrana, M. C. (2009). Psychometric properties of the Spanish-language Child Depression Inventory with Hispanic children who are secondary victims of domestic violence. Adolescence, 44(173), 133-148.

Morelen, D. M. (2017). Children’s Depression Inventory-2. In V. Zeigler-Hill & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences (pp. 1-5). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Myers, K., & Winters, N. C. (2002). Ten-year review of rating scales. II: Scales for internalizing disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(6), 634-659. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200206000-00004

Park, I. J. K., Wang, L., Williams, D. R., & Alegría, M. (2017). Does anger regulation mediate the discrimination-mental health link among Mexican-origin adolescents? A longitudinal mediation analysis using multilevel modeling. Developmental Psychology, 53(2), 340-352. doi: 10.1037/dev0000235

Politano, P. M., Edinger, D. L., & Nelson, W. M., 3rd. (1989). Comparisons of conduct and affective disordered youth: A psychometric investigation of responses to the Children's Depression Inventory. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30(3), 431-438.

Reynolds, W. M. (2002). Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - 2nd Edition: Professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Rivera-Medina, C. L., Bernal, G., Rossello, J., & Cumba-Avilés, E. (2010). A Study of the predictive validity of the Children's Depression Inventory for Major Depression Disorder in Puerto Rican adolescents. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 32(2), 232-258.

Rosselló, J., Guisasola, E., Ralat, S., Martínez, S., & Nieves, A. (1992). La evaluación de la depresión en un grupo de jóvenes puertorriqueños [The evaluation of depression in a group of Puerto Rican youth]. Revista Puertorriqueña de Psicología, 8, 155-162.

Ruiz-Fontanet, M. (1990). Traducción y adaptación del Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) en una muestra de adolescentes puertorriqueña entre las edades de 13 a 16 años [Translation and adaptation of the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) in a sample of Puerto Rican adolescents aged 13 to 16 years]. (Unpublished doctoral disertation), Caribbean Center for Advanced Studies, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Scanlon, N. M. (2016). Within-group differences of Hispanic children's symptoms of depression, anxiety, and social anxiety and their relations with various parenting behaviors. (Doctoral Dissertation), Texas Tech University, Texas. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2346/72280

Suarez-Lopez, J. R., Hood, N., Suárez-Torres, J., Gahagan, S., Gunnar, M. R., & López-Paredes, D. (2019). Associations of acetylcholinesterase activity with depression and anxiety symptoms among adolescents growing up near pesticide spray sites. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2019.06.001

Sun, S., & Wang, S. (2015). The Children's Depression Inventory in worldwide child development research: A reliability generalization study. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 24(8), 2352-2363. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-0038-x

Tropez-Arceneaux, L. L., Castillo Alaniz, A. T., Icaza, I. L., & Murillo, E. A. (2017). The psychological impact of First Burn Camp in Nicaragua. Journal of Burn Care & Research, 38(1), e1-e7.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2018a). 2013-2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates: Hispanic or Latino Origin by Specific Origin (B03001). Retrieved August 19, 2019, from https://factfinder.census.gov/

U.S. Census Bureau. (2018b). 2013-2017 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates: Puerto Rico (SC1603, S0101, SC1601 & B16004). Retrieved August 17, 2019, from https://factfinder.census.gov/

U.S. Census Bureau. (2018c). 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates: Puerto Rico (S0901). Retrieved August 17, 2019, from https://factfinder.census.gov/

U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Single Year of Age and Sex for the United States, States, and Puerto Rico Commonwealth: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018. Retrieved August 16, 2019, from https://factfinder.census.gov/

Yánez Botello, C. R., Rozo Sánchez, M. M., Avendaño, B. L., Barraza, L. M., Gutiérrez, D. A., & Sánchez Silva, N. (2017). Análisis psicométrico del Children's Depression Inventory-Short y porcentaje de niños y niñas colombianos con síntomas depresivos [Psychometric analysis of Children's Depression Inventory-Short and percentage of Colombian boys and girls with depressive symptoms]. Cultura, Educación y Sociedad, 8(1), 25-42. doi: 10.17981/cultedusoc. 8.1. 2017.02

Yurdugül, H. (2008). Minimum sample size for Cronbach’s coefficient alpha: A Monte-Carlo study. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 35, 397-405. http://www.efdergi.hacettepe.edu.tr/yonetim/ icerik/makaleler/571-published.pdf

Zayas, L. H., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Yoon, H., & Rey, G. N. (2015). The distress of citizen-children with detained and deported parents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(11), 3213-3223. doi: 10.1007/s10826-015-0124-8

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.

Revista Puertorriqueña de Psicología / Puerto Rican Journal of Psychology es una publicación indexada en las bases de datos especializadas de:


Asociación de Psicología de Puerto Rico
PO Box 363435 San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-3435 
Tel.(787) 751-7100 / Fax.(787) 758-6467
E-mail: revpuertorriquenadepsicologia@gmail.com 

free porn